1 Braith RW, et al. Enhanced external counterpulsation improves peripheral artery flow-mediated dilation in patients with chronic angina: a randomized sham-controlled study. Circulation. 2010;122:1612-20.


2 Arora RR, et al. Effects of Enhanced External Counterpulsation on Health-Related Quality of Life Continue 12 Months After Treatment: A Substudy of the Multicenter Study of Enhanced External Counterpulsation. Journal of Investigative Medicine. 2002;50:25-32.


3 Bonetti PO, Holmes DR, Lerman A, Barsness GW, Jr., Enhanced external counterpulsation for ischemic heart disease: what´s behind the curtain? . J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41:1918–1925).


4 Loh, et al. Enhanced External Counterpulsation in the Treatment of Chronic Refractory Angina: A Long-term Follow-up Outcome from the International Enhanced External Counterpulsation Patient Registry. Clin Cardiol. 2008;31:159-164.



Dr. Annie Varughese is Not affiliated with Cardiovascular Advantages, LLC. Her professional opinions/ knowledge was used for reference purposes only as it relates to ECP..

Varughese MD, Annie. "External Counterpulsation Therapy." Online Video Clip. Best Docs Network.YouTube, 20-May-2013. Web.20-09-2016.

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